New Year is a time for looking forward and also back. 2019 was the year when Parliament forced the previous (2017-19) government to seek an extension of EU membership - European Union (Withdrawal) (No 2) Act 2019. A "no-deal" Brexit was therefore avoided on 31 October. This showed that the UK's constitutional arrangements were capable of preventing action by the executive which would have had serious economic consequences. Nonetheless, it was a difficult process and constitutional consequences have been signalled by the Conservative Party manifesto and, following their general election win, the Queen's Speech.
The 2019 general election resulted