The Court Martial comprises
a Judge Advocate who sits along with a panel of so-called "lay members" who are serving officers or warrant officers. The composition of the court is set out in section 155 of the 2006 Act.
The Armed Forces Act 2006: This set down a single code of military law applicable to all three services. The offence of disobedience to a lawful command is in section 12. The offence carries a maximum punishment of 10 years imprisonment. The Court Martial may award other punishments such as dismissal from Her Majesty's service etc. - see s.164 of the Act. In 2006, Flt.Lt. Kendall-Smith, an RAF doctor, was sentenced to 8 months imprisonment for refusing to serve in Iraq.
The European Court of Human Rights and Conscientious Objection: A useful factsheet on this subject is available on the website of the European Court of Human Rights.